1 evaluate of the effect of a scientific idea is how frequently it will get cited by other scientists. The best-cited paper of all time, according to a 2014 evaluation by Mother nature, has now been cited by 344,007 other scientific content articles considering the fact that its publication in 1951. (The subject matter? You’d hardly ever guess, for explanations we’ll get into underneath.) Researchers’ work prospective clients are affected by their h-index, a evaluate that rewards acquiring a large quantity of greatly cited papers (and perhaps, though no a person would essentially confess it, by their Kardashian index, which compares their cumulative citations to the quantity of Twitter followers they have).
You can also use equivalent tactics to evaluate whole fields, which is what a new examine led by Omeet Khatra of the University of British Columbia tries for athletics and workout medication. In the Orthopaedic Journal of Athletics Drugs, Khatra and his colleagues put with each other a record of the one hundred content articles with the most citations in the area, giving a snapshot of the influence of both personal papers and broader tendencies. There are a bunch of interesting findings, but perhaps the most telling is this: only a person of the one hundred papers is a randomized controlled demo, which is the gold-typical style of experimental proof.
1 vital caveat for this evaluation is that the boundaries of athletics and workout medication are fairly hazy. Khatra’s definition consists of handling athletics injuries, enhancing athletic efficiency, and the use of workout to strengthen overall health. Which is really wide, but the technique applied to establish best papers was a minor additional idiosyncratic. They begun by identifying a record of 46 journals concentrated on athletics and workout medication, and then determined the one hundred most-cited content articles from in those journals.
That signifies considerable papers revealed in non-professional journals do not exhibit up on the record. A.V. Hill’s primary 1923 study on VO2 max was revealed in the Quarterly Journal of Drugs Karlman Wasserman’s 1964 paper on the anaerobic threshold was revealed in the American Journal of Cardiology. In point, you’d assume that the most ground-breaking findings are the most probable to make it into generalist journals like Mother nature and Science (where by, for example, a typical 1937 paper on the cardio power of earth history-placing runners was revealed).
So it is not a complete record, but it nonetheless addresses a massive portion of the area. It’s dominated by Drugs & Science in Athletics & Physical exercise, the flagship journal of the American University of Athletics Drugs, which contributes no considerably less than forty nine of the papers. Up coming on the record are the American Journal of Athletics Drugs, with 18, and Athletics Drugs, with seven. The oldest paper on the record is from 1973, reflecting the field’s somewhat new emergence as a distinct discipline: MSSE, for example, was only launched in 1969.
Topping the record with seven,228 citations was Gunnar Borg’s 1982 paper, “Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion.” Borg is the male who highly developed the principle of a subjective scale of perceived hard work, which at first ran from six to twenty, though there’s a additional reasonable modified model that runs from zero to 10. He begun producing this idea in the nineteen sixties, but the 1982 English-language paper is the a person that will get cited each time persons talk about perceived hard work. (A further a person of Borg’s papers on the subject matter, from 1973, reveals up at forty eighth on the record.)
You may well not imagine that inquiring persons to assign a quantity to how difficult they’re working is a significant scientific breakthrough. But Borg’s work has had a huge influence. He argued that his scale is “the one most effective indicator of the degree of physical pressure,” integrating alerts from the muscle groups, lungs, coronary heart, and mind. In the past two decades, additional and additional scientists have taken that argument severely as they’ve attempted to make clear the brain’s function in deciding our physical limits, and also as a simple software for guiding education. Bottom line: I’d say Borg’s paper is a worthy winner.
The biggest group of papers on the record concentration on methodological equipment: how to run a VO2 max test, how to calculate entire body composition, how to calibrate your pedometers and accelerometers, what validated questionnaires to use to inquire your topics about their workout habits, and so on. Which is also what is observed in other fields: the all-time most cited paper that I pointed out at the best is a approaches paper on “protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent.”
Strategies papers could not sound all that exciting, but they can definitely be controversial. Several of the papers on the record concentration on figures, including the quantity 9 paper, from 2008, by Will Hopkins and colleagues: “Progressive figures for experiments in athletics medication and workout science.” That method to figures is intended to tease out delicate efficiency effects in experiments with smaller sample dimensions. But it has occur under intense criticism, most notably pursuing a 2018 posting in FiveThirtyEight by Christie Aschwanden arguing that it is additional probable to produce false-positive findings than regular statistical approaches.
A further significant bucket is formal guidelines, largely the kinds issued by the American University of Athletics Drugs on subject areas including resistance education, performing exercises with cancer, hydration, excess weight reduction, blood strain, and workouts for more mature adults. These are useful overviews to cite in the introduction to an posting when you want to again up common statements like “exercise is fantastic for you” or whatsoever, but they’re not especially ground-breaking.
Soon after that, it is additional of a blended bag. The most well known aspect of the anatomy is the knee, which is the concentration of 15 papers, largely relating to ACL injuries. Up coming is the mind, which attributes in three papers on concussion in activity. Two other themes that rack up many mentions: the enduring mystery of delayed-onset muscle mass soreness, and the rising overall health scourge of far too considerably sitting.
There are three papers on the physiology of soccer, a person on the biomechanics of baseball pitching, and a person on Hakan Alfredson’s well known heel-fall protocol for Achilles tendinosis, which squeaks in at 98th put. (Humorous backstory: Alfredson is an orthopedic surgeon who had Achilles problems again in the nineties. When his manager refused to give him time off for medical procedures since the problem wasn’t major plenty of, he made the decision to aggravate his Achilles with distressing heel drops—but accidentally healed himself.)
I pointed out at the best that only a person of the experiments on the record is a randomized controlled demo, that means that topics ended up randomly assigned to either get either an intervention or a placebo. Rather, most of the experimental papers use reduce ranges of proof such as cohort experiments and scenario sequence, neither of which use randomization or handle groups. The major one category, with 38 papers, is narrative testimonials, which survey the effects of many experiments on a subject matter but do not pool them into a person significant meta-evaluation.
I imagine most athletics scientists would agree that the area requirements additional randomized trials, along with other methodological advancements like greater matter groups and additional advanced statistical analyses. But the faults in the best-one hundred record almost certainly aren’t distinct to athletics science. Watson and Crick’s discovery of the construction of DNA and Einstein’s idea of common relativity do not make their respective lists either: the major breakthroughs develop into textbook materials that does not even involve a citation. “If citations are what you want,” Yale University chemist Peter Moore advised Mother nature, “devising a technique that can make it possible for persons to do the experiments they want at all, or additional quickly, will get you a large amount additional than, say, identifying the magic formula of the Universe.”
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